Town, Chita region, east-central Russia. Population 16,900 (1991).
The town lies along the Nercha River just above the latter's confluence with the Shilka.
Nerchinsk was founded as a fort in 1654. Once it served as an important customs post and trading centreon the route to China, but the town declined when it was bypassed by the Trans-Siberian Railway in the late 19th century.
There are minor electromechanical and food-processing industries in the town.