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|Print version. Published on site Rusnet.NL 18 December 2003
Kamchatka, peninsula, 104,200 sq mi (269,878 sq km) in Russian Far East, separating the Sea of Okhotsk in the west from the Bering Sea and the Pacific Ocean in the east.
Kamchatka is 750 mi (1,207 km) long and terminates in the south in Cape Lopatka, beyond which lie the Kuril Islands.
Petropavlovsk is the chief city.
There are many rivers and lakes, and the eastern shore is deeply indented by gulfs and bays. The peninsula's central valley, drained by the Kamchatka River, is enclosed by two parallel volcanic ranges that extend north-south; there are about 120 volcanoes, 20 of which are active. The highest point is Klyuchevskaya Sopka (15,600 ft/4,755 m), itself an active volcano.
Kamchatka is covered with mountain vegetation, except in the central valley and on the west coast, which has peat marshes and tundralike moss. The climate is cold and humid. There are numerous forests, mineral springs, and geysers.
Kamchatka's mineral resources include coal, gold, mica, pyrites, sulfur, and tufa. Fishing, sealing, hunting, and lumbering are the main occupations. Fur trapping on the peninsula yields most of the furs of the Russian Far East. Some cattle breeding is carried on in the south and farming (rye, oats, potatoes, vegetables) in the Kamchatka valley and around Petropavlovsk. Reindeer are also raised on the peninsula.
Industries include fish processing, shipbuilding, and woodworking. Russia's only geothermal power station is on the peninsula.
There is some tourism, particularly in the Kronotsky Nature Reserve, noted for its geysers. The majority of the population is Russian, with large minorities of Koryak peoples. The northern part of the peninsula is administered as the Koryak Autonomous Area. Its capital is Palana.
The Russian explorer Atlasov discovered Kamchatka in 1697. Its exploration and development continued in the early 18th century under Peter I. Russian conquest was complete by 1732. Heavy Russian colonisation occurred in the early 19th century. From 1926 to 1938, Kamchatka formed part of the Far Eastern Territory.
The Kamchatka page