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  RusNet :: Encyclopedia :: E  

Evenki Autonomous District

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Updated: 08.10.2003

Evenki Autonomous District is situated in Eastern Siberia, in the Extreme North of Russia. The region borders upon Krasnoyarsk Territory, Taimyr Autonomous Region, the Republic of Sakha (see Yakutia) and Irkutsk Region. The administrative centre is Tura.

The area is 767,000 sq. km. The population of the region is 19,000 people, the one fifth of the population are the native people (the Evenks, the Yakuts, the Ketos, the Nenets). Density of population is 0,03 per 1 sq. km.

The climate is distinctly continental. The average temperature of January varies from -26 to -36 degrees, of July -from +13 and +15 degrees centigrade. The number of days in a year with temperatures below zero is 226. The most part of the region is the permafrost. The tundra takes 1/10 of the whole territory. Precipitations are about 400 mm a year.

The industry is underdeveloped. The district's share of the gross domestic product of the Russian Federation is close to 0%. The whole territory is virgin (industrial development is not carried out and not planned here). Reindeer breeding, fishing and hunting is the basis of the local economy. Scientists came to the conclusion that this is the most ecologically clean region of Russia and maybe of the world.

There are some deposits of graphite, Iceland spar and coal. However, reserves of oil (more than 500 million tonnes) and gas (more than 700 billion cubic metres), explored during the last 15 years, give a hope that soon the oil and gas production will be the basis of the local economy.

The fauna of Evenkia is extremely rich. These are such fur animals as sable, fox, polar fox, bear, wolf, glutton, argali, elk, reindeer, seal. The rivers and lakes teem with various species of fish, including rare (salmon trout, white salmon, sturgeon, sterlet, etc.) and common fish (pike, umber, loach, etc).

Absolutely virgin woods are represented by coniferous breeds.

Bowels of the earth contain deposits of gold, precious metals and stones, ornamental stones. At the same time the geology of the region, as well as the flora and fauna, are not investigated at all proposing a riddle for scientists.

The region is the native land of such unique peoples as the Ketos - 718 people, the Nganasans - 809, Entss - 209. Their languages, culture and religion are unique. The ancient taiga-tundra culture of these peoples (including shamanism, rites, ancient medicine, way of life, crafts, etc.) is really preserved here.

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