City (2001 pop. 1,081,800), capital of Chelyabinsk region, W Siberian Russia, in the southern foothills of the Urals. It lies on the Trans-Siberian Railway.
Founded as a frontier outpost on the site of a Bashkir village in 1736, Chelyabinsk is one of the major metallurgical and industrial centres of Russia. The city produces steel, zinc, metal alloys, heavy chemicals, and agricultural machinery.
The city's growth was greatly stimulated by the eastward evacuation of Russian industry in World War II.
It has many industrial and scientific institutes, but severe pollution makes it one of the least attractive Russian cities.